North Korean SRI Champion wins International Award!

Many congratulations to Ms Kim Ri Hwa for her FAO model farmer award which was presented to her last month in Bangkok.[1] Her efforts have seen a tenfold increase in rice production on the Maejon Cooperative Farm where she has helped the 80 farming families turn their lives around. That is a significant success!

Kim achieved her results by adopting Conservation Agriculture (CA), which helped restore the quality of the soil on the coastal farm she now manages in partnership with the AFSC (American Friends Service Committee). Her success is particularly well timed as sea levels are impacting dramatically upon her region and across the southeast Asian region as a whole, causing high soil salinity and devastating crop losses.

Once the integrity of the soil on Maejon Farm was re-established, the introduction of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) helped, over a period of seven years, to increase rice yields from a paltry 1 tonne per hectare to an impressive 10 tonnes per hectare. This is an achievement not just for Ms Kim but also for SRI itself as it comes in the context of an average yield in North Korea of 5.3 tonnes/ha[2]. Even commercial farmers in the country, using all the best management practices, latest seeds and chemical inputs do not often attain such results. The introduction of other innovations at the farm has also brought about an 80% increase in maize production as well as a 70% decrease in root diseases.

SRI and CA are well-suited to environments where soil degradation and climate change represent such grave challenges.[3],[4] Both encourage eco-friendly approaches which result in healthier soils and stronger root systems in plants that are then better able to withstand strong winds, flooding, lodging and drought. CA’s no-till principle results in less compacted soil that can more easily absorb water and SRI requires up to 50% less water[5] and reduced inputs of up to 90%[6]

CA was introduced to North Korea over 15 years ago by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the AFSC has been encouraging the adoption of SRI in the country since 2004.[7] “It saves equipment, it saves fertilizer, and it also saves them labour in lots of ways. So, it really is a successful innovation,” explains AFSC’s country manager for North Korea, Linda Lewis, who believes SRI now has the potential to spread nationwide.

Kim Ri Hwa grew up in the city but embraced the world of agriculture after responding to a call for people to help develop the countryside. Hard work rewarded her with the position of team leader on a cooperative farm and she qualified as a crop engineer before managing the Maejon Cooperative Farm.

Other recipients of the model farmer award this year were Ar Promtaisong from Rayong province of Thailand, Phonexay Thammavong from Laos, Fazla Yoosuf from the Maldives and Samson Mahit Haitong from Vanuatu.

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/asiapacific/events/award-citations-to-fao-asia-pacific-model-farmers/model-farmers2018/en/

[2] Ireson, Randall 2013: The State of North Korean Farming: New Information from the UN Crop Assessment Report

[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311418457_Conservation_Agriculture_and_Climate_Change_An_Overview

[4] Redfern, Suzanne K., Azzu , Nadine and Binamira , Jesie S. 2012 Rice in Southeast Asia: Facing Risks and Vulnerabilities to Respond to Climate Change http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/documents/climate/Rice_Southeast_Asia.pdf

[5]  Uphoff, N. 2007. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a System of Agricultural Innovation. Paper presented at the International Workshop: Farmer Participatory Research and Development 20 Years On. Future Agricultures Consortium, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, U.K. 12–14 December 2007 (available at: http://www.future-agricultures.org/farmerfirst/files/T1c_Uphoff.pdf).

[6] http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/aboutus/SRI_brochure2015.pdf

[7] https://www.afsc.org/video/improving-rice-production-north-korea-dprk

 

Rural women have resilience to cope with climate risks: study

See original post in vigyanprasar.gov.in

Author: Dinesh C Sharma

Climate change impacts are being felt in many parts of the country, as manifested in erratic rainfall, extreme weather events and changes in cropping patterns. Adapting to these changes at farm and household levels is critical. A new study says women, particularly in marginalised communities, possess necessary knowledge to cope with climate risks.

The study assessed the role of individual women in coping with climatic risks, particularly in managing agriculture, energy and nutrition in flood and drought-prone paddy growing region of eastern India. It was found that women’s participation and involvement is much higher in managing nursery as well as in other farm-related functions like transplanting and weeding. Women resort to exchange of knowledge and resources at their level to face exigencies of climatic variation, given the absence of timely governmental interventions.

For instance, women use creative ways to manage food and nutrition security in their households in lean months. Many of them plant cucurbits like bottle gourd, pumpkin, satputia (a small cultivar of ridge gourd) and okra in their homesteads, catering to vegetable needs of the family since these are costlier in summer. A few women ensured food security by processing fruits and vegetables and storing them for consumption later. They harvest weeds and segregate them for consumption by human and some for cattle, while non-edible ones are composted.

Women in high-risk zones, especially arid and semi-arid zones choose leaves and stem of many plants available throughout the year for food. “This becomes an important coping strategy to fight food shortage or famine. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine systems for their therapeutic effects,” the study says. Researchers have documented such weeds used in three villages in the study area. Their expertise and knowledge about non-agricultural food sources help in dealing with food and nutrition availability resulting due to fluctuating climate, the study says.

” This becomes an important coping strategy to fight food shortage or famine. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine systems for their therapeutic effects “

“In a situation when not many technological alternatives are available and climate risks have to be coped with, there are ways in which individual women find creative ways by managing resource exchange and pooling, overcoming class and cultural boundaries,” explained Dr Anil Gupta of Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, who conducted the study along with Anamika Dey and Gurdeep Singh of Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad.

The research is part of a long-term study on loss of agrobiodiversity underway in three villages (Isoulibhari, Shivnathpur, and Kharella) in Faizabad district in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The villages, located in floodplains of the Sarayu river, are flood prone and mostly follow rain-fed rice-wheat cropping system. The region is facing vagaries of climate change. Data of the past 25 years obtained from Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology showed high fluctuation in onset and withdrawal of monsoon, number of rainfall days, total rainfall received and average rainfall received per number of days.

“We found that knowledge networks of women contribute immensely to tide over the adverse effect of the risk episodes. But these informal channels of dissemination of the knowledge are often not recorded in formal scientific discourses,” Dr Gupta told India Science Wire.

Instead of ignoring the role of such informal networks, they can be used as channels for targeting climate adaptation policies and programmes, the study has suggested. If women groups become focal points of knowledge and resource dissemination in situations like crop failure due to flood or drought, there are fair chances that they will share these more openly. In addition, weather information needs to be provided according to local calendars, which are different from the Gregorian calendars, the study has suggested. The study has been published in journal World Development.

A Farmer, a Leader, an Entrepreneur and a Businesswoman

By: Sabnam Aferin
Edits: Kanna K Siripurapu
From Nirman Odisha

With an electrifying smile and fire in her eyes, the story of Smt. Mahakud is exemplary!

A Farmer, a Leader, an Entrepreneur and a Businesswoman, Smt. Binodini Mahakuda (63), is the resident of Nuamunda village located in Tumudibandha Gram Panchayat, Tummidibandha Block of Kandhamal Distirct, of Odisha. The village has 54 households (HHs) and the population predominantly belongs to the other backward castes (OBC) category. Only one HH of the village belongs to the scheduled tribe (ST). Smt. Mahakud, lives with her family, which includes her son, daughter-in-law, and grandchildren. Her family belongs to economically backward class and falls in the below poverty line (BPL) category. The family has no patta land to cultivate but owns only .50 decimal homestead land.

Indigenous agriculture practices, crop diversity and indigenous heirloom seed diversity had been eroding in the region, including Nuamunda village. Residents of the village have been gravitated towards cash crops and abandoned the traditionally grown food grains of millets. The government had been pushing the local farmers to adopt high yielding hybrid varieties, chemical pesticides and synthetic fertilizers under the state supported OTELP programmes. In addition, close proximity of the village to local market had been also contributing to local farmers gravitating towards cash crops, use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. However, maize and finger millets are the only indigenous crops still cultivated by local farmers and much of the traditionally cultivated indigenous food crops have been disappeared from the village. As a result, food and livelihood insecurity of local communities in the region, including Nuamunda village has spiked over the years.

NIRMAN with the project support of CWS (Centre for World Solidarity) has intervened in the area in the year 2011. A Jaibika Krushaka Sangha had been formed at Nuamunda village by the NIRMAN to create awareness about the impacts of toxic chemicals and synthetic fertilizers and the benefits of organic farming. Smt. Mahakud had been one of the active participants of the Krusaka Sangha. NIRMAN has supplied heirloom seeds of few indigenous vegetables to farmers of the village. Smt. Mahakud has also received her share of heirloom seeds, she has cultivated them in the kitchen garden of her own backyard land with the support of her daughter-in-law. In the first year she reaped a good harvest and the family used it for own consumption. The same year, she has collected and preserved good quality vegetable heirloom seeds from the harvest and saved them for the next cropping season. She says that kitchen garden produces enough vegetables for her family. She has started sale of surplus produce of eggplant and okra at the local market. During the present harvest season, she already collected and preserved heirloom seeds of ridge gourd, eggplant, okra and cow pea, which she will use during the next cropping cycle. She says that the seed collection and preservation techniques she learned during training organized by NIRMAN on heirloom seed extraction and preservation very useful.

A Leader, Entrepreneur and Businesswoman, Mrs. Mahakud, dons many hats, she is not just a farmer, she is an avid heirloom seed collector and seed conservationist, in addition and most importantly, she is a local leader, an entrepreneur and a seasoned businesswoman. She is the President of the local self-help group (SHG), Maa Gojabayani Swayam Sahayak Dala. She says that village HHs, especially women suffered from inadequate financial circumstances and lack of proper access to credit during emergencies. They were bound to borrow money, often for healthcare, funerals or even food, from local, private money-lenders for a very high interest rate. To address this issue, she along with few other progressive women folk of the village took the lead and formed the SHG. Members of the SHG saves little amounts on a monthly basis. The pooled amount is used for giving soft and loans with interest to members of the group.

Mrs. Mahakud, also played a major role in motivation of SHG members to start business. The SHG under her leadership started sale of rice, which unfortunately did not taste success. The SHG then tried at sale of oil, but suffered a serious setback. However, neither the SHG members nor she were discouraged from the unfavorable outcomes. They remained determined and took up processing and sale of medical forest products of amla, harada and bahada. The SHG under her leadership has signed an agreement with the Dabur to supply value added NTFPs (amla, harada, and bahada), and the SHG has already supplied 20 quintals of Amla, 10 quintals of harada and 10 quintals of bahada, to Dabur during the current year. While most of the SHGs of this region have either sunk in debts from default bank loans or become defunct, the SHG of Nuamunda sailed and tamed the tides. Smt. Mahakud, set an example of good leadership, with her clear vision and active participation the steered the SHG towards profits and doing profitable business, that too without taking any loans from the bank or other credit institutions. With an electrifying smile and fire in her eyes, the story of Smt. Mahakud is exemplary!

It’s the Most Vulnerable Who Are Hit First and Worst

We used to think about the impacts of global warming as something happening in the distant future. But the reality is that communities around the world are dealing with it today.

From Ethiopia to Bangladesh, from Peru to our own Gulf Coast, we have witnessed the shocking damage from droughts, floods, and extreme weather associated with climate change. And as the devastation of hurricanes Katrina and Sandy have shown right here in the United States, it’s the poorest and most vulnerable who are hit first and worst.

Women are particularly vulnerable, as they often have access to less education and fewer resources, making it more difficult for them to cope when disaster does strike.

 

Read the full article on the Huffington Post

 

Woman farmer honoured for record rice yield

As part of a drive to encourage farmers to adopt the system of rice intensification (SRI) technique of paddy cultivation, District Collector C. Samayamoorthy on Monday honoured a woman farmer from the district who had won a national award for having achieved a record yield.

The woman farmer T. Amalarani of Vasudevanallur in the district, who harvested 18,143 kg of paddy per hectare under the SRI technique, bagged the Union Government’s ‘Krishi Karman Award’ carrying the cash prize of Rs. 1 lakh and received it from President Pranab Mukherjee in New Delhi on January 15.

Read the original on The Hindu

SRI is changing lives in India’s heartland

When Anil Verma’s PRAN (Preservation and Proliferation of Rural Resources and Nature) approached paddy growing women farmers in Gaya district of Bihar, asking them to try SRI (System of Root Intensification) in their fields, he was met with disdainful looks. It sounded too good to be true, especially to farmers who had been growing paddy for generations. One lady, Kunti Devi, stood up and agreed to try it (‘Out of pity for us’, Anil says). Kunti Devi was given a tiny plot of land by the Government of Bihar, but it was barely enough to grow what she needed. After trying SRI, the results from her field were amazing, with her paddy crop getting record yields. She had surplus cash and was finally able to send her children to school.

Read more from the original article on The Alternative

 

Women Strong – Lotus Foods

(See the original from Lotus Foods)

The world’s global rice supply is literally produced on women’s backs. Women growing rice is the largest single livelihood activity in the world.

Women are thus central not just to sustaining global food security and nutrition, but also for the environmental management of a large portion of the world’s cultivable land.

Women generally do the arduous, back-breaking repetitive work of uprooting and transplanting seedlings, weeding and harvesting.

Rice is mostly grown under flooded conditions and mainly in the wet or summer season, requiring women to work long hours under the hot sun or in rain, in standing water, under unhygienic conditions, and exposed to numerous chemicals, parasites and various disease vectors.

In a cropping season, women can spend 400-500 or more hours bent or sitting in standing water per acre of rice grown to uproot seedlings from flooded nurseries, transport them to main fields, transplant them and weed the fields. Check out this photo of women uprooting rice seedlings in Mali! They sit this way for days and days. Photo by Erika Styger.

Malian_women_pulling_seedlings_1000px

The work and exposure to diseases and chemicals in the flooded fields leads to chronic and acute illness, which undermines the health and welfare of women around the world, and thus also agricultural productivity and food security.

They also have to tend other crops or livestock, collect wood and water, cook, care for family, and sometimes do wage labor or market small products.

Women are taking on ever more responsibility in managing rice production as more men seek work off-farm to generate needed household income, a process characterized as the ‘feminization of agriculture’.

Current private and public sector strategies to raise agricultural productivity promote more new seeds and agrochemicals, which means women’s exposure to toxic chemicals in increasing, with implications not only for their health but for that of their unborn children.

So how does MCPD/SRI disrupt this anti-women bias?

MCDP dramatically reduces the pain, drudgery and time required by women to grow rice.

Work in flooded fields is minimized or eliminated. There is a reduction in labor time (about half) and lightening of work due to fewer and younger seedlings to manage, and also a reduction in repetitive motions and time spent in bent postures. Weeding is done in an upright position with a weeder, and men are more likely to assist with weeding when there is a mechanical tool.

Women can use freed time for other domestic or farm activities, producing more profitable cash crops on land they can take out of paddy. Many women start their own small business or become farmer-leaders training others on SRI. Women using SRI/MCPD methods note an improvement in their health and diets, with more time to eat and rest. Higher incomes improve family quality of life.