Heritage and diversity hold many answers for climate change resilience

When tropical cyclone Fani made landfall on India’s east coast at the start of May this year, the authorities had moved over a million people from their homes in order to keep the toll on human life to a minimum. Nonetheless, Fani killed 64 people in the state of Orissa alone and caused an estimated $2.46 billion worth of damage. For many, though, Fani wasn’t even the worst of it, coming as it did after severe summer hail storms that destroyed food crops across the state.

Three months on and 24 of the 30 districts in Orissa are affected by drought, which is already impacting on crop production and leading to ‘distress’ migration.

These events, these ‘phenomena’ are not unique to Orissa and they are not unique to now. But they are turning into the new ‘normal’ and as a result, people across the state, the nation – the globe, even – are having to learn to adapt, to build their resilience to this changing climate.

Indigenous cultures hold many answers

At the start of July, when the rains are expected to start and rice transplanting will begin for the kharif (or monsoon) season, members of the Kandha tribe in Ganjam district, Orissa, come together to celebrate the diversity of rice varieties they have in their stores. It is this store that is their weapon in the fight against climate change, this store of diversity.

There were once many thousands – some say around 200,000 – of rice varieties in India. Thanks to traditional cultures, there are still many hundreds of varieties available, many of which can grow in stressed conditions.

Seed preservation is very much the women’s domain and they use this ritual to share with other women the seeds they have so carefully preserved and the prized properties each variety possesses.

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In 2018, organic farmer and social activist, Sabarmatee, received India’s highest civilian award for women’s empowerment, the Nari Shakti Puraskar . She works with these local women and has helped with organising their ceremony.

“In 2013,” she says, “we had another serious cyclone, called Phailin. The wind speed reached 150km per hour. At that time, we had 350 varieties, and out of those, 37 varieties could withstand that wind speed. They were just half bent over – they were not completely lost.”

Sabarmatee is very interested in the potential of this traditional biodiversity because she grows what is probably the world’s biggest collection of indigenous seed varieties under what is known as the System of Rice Intensification, or SRI.

What is SRI?

SABARMATEE SEED FESTIVAL 2019 15SRI is a way of growing rice that is quite different to the conventional method. Normally, people will plant older (45-day) seedlings in tight clumps and in flooded fields. SRI requires that seedlings are just 8-10 days old and are planted singly, wide apart in a grid and in drained soil.

SRI works best under an alternate wet and dry system of water management. It requires less water, up to 90% fewer seeds, less labour and it yields more than conventionally-grown rice. And with particular reference to climate change, SRI plants produce stronger root systems which means they can withstand strong winds, flooding and very dry conditions. “Growth is so vigorous with SRI.  We first learnt about it in 2006 in March, when it was not a rice-growing time so we just planted a few seedlings to practice, to see how to do it. And you won’t believe me, the temperature went up to 35+. We didn’t even have water to irrigate those few plants. And for 15 days, they withstood that.”

For Sabarmatee, as well as offering a way to build resilience to extreme weather, SRI is also a means of preserving multiple rice varieties in a very small plot of land. “We have just 2 acres of land here. The question for me was: how can I collect more and more indigenous varieties, conserve them here and be able to share with people? SRI showed us the way to conserve indigenous varieties.” Sabarmatee goes on to describe how with just 200 10-15-day old seedlings spaced 10 inches x 10 inches apart, it is possible to produce enough seeds for 1 acre next year.

The wonder of indigenous seeds

“You know,” continues Sabarmatee, “the indigenous varieties have been knocked down, they became the ‘bad boys’ for scientists, mostly rice scientists, who said that they don’t produce so much. And this has been the idea floating around, injected into the minds of people over the many years of the green revolution, which started in India. So, research was more and more concentrated on rice breeding.” But having grown so many varieties now and having seen the high yields and resilience many of these have to severe weather, she has become more convinced of nature’s own capacity to breed resilient rice. And this isn’t just a way of fighting severe weather. Indigenous varieties grown under SRI conditions have also shown resilience to pest and disease.

“When you have so many varieties, you also have so many pests and diseases and we’ve studied that too. It’s very interesting. Like, if you have two varieties just next to each other, one variety can be affected by blast (fungus) and the other one doesn’t have anything. Absolutely nothing. Even as the neighbour of this diseased plant! And then we have learnt that OK, this means it tolerates blast, you know. It’s blast resistant. So we could now recognise all these properties and then if someone comes and says that in their area there is a big blast problem and ‘do you have a variety for that?’ ‘Yes, we do!'”

And so the 2019 rice season begins

The transplanting starts with a ceremony which opens with prayers to Mother Earth, to Devi Lakshmi and to the rice plants.

Sabarmatee now grows well in excess of 450 varieties and has the tiny seedlings ready and organised for transplanting.

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With the drought conditions that prevail right now, it is not going to be an easy season. There is a little water remaining in the ponds at Sabarmatee’s farm, Sambhav, which are fed by a canal. Enough, it is hoped, for these small plants to establish themselves. The SRI planting will hopefully give them the chance of surviving whatever the weather throws at them. It remains to be seen how many of the 450 varieties make it. But many will and Sabarmatee will have a good store of rice she knows will produce climate resilient crops, and that prized knowledge she will be able to share next year, with the women of the Kandha tribe.

Sabarmatee has a Facebook page for her farm, Sambhav
To learn more about SRI, visit the Cornell University SRI-Rice Center


Further reading

Odisha’s Sabarmatee Tiki receives ‘Nari Shakti Award’

Diversified Farming

Pests fail to attack traditional variety of paddy

North Korean SRI Champion wins International Award!

Many congratulations to Ms Kim Ri Hwa for her FAO model farmer award which was presented to her last month in Bangkok.[1] Her efforts have seen a tenfold increase in rice production on the Maejon Cooperative Farm where she has helped the 80 farming families turn their lives around. That is a significant success!

Kim achieved her results by adopting Conservation Agriculture (CA), which helped restore the quality of the soil on the coastal farm she now manages in partnership with the AFSC (American Friends Service Committee). Her success is particularly well timed as sea levels are impacting dramatically upon her region and across the southeast Asian region as a whole, causing high soil salinity and devastating crop losses.

Once the integrity of the soil on Maejon Farm was re-established, the introduction of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) helped, over a period of seven years, to increase rice yields from a paltry 1 tonne per hectare to an impressive 10 tonnes per hectare. This is an achievement not just for Ms Kim but also for SRI itself as it comes in the context of an average yield in North Korea of 5.3 tonnes/ha[2]. Even commercial farmers in the country, using all the best management practices, latest seeds and chemical inputs do not often attain such results. The introduction of other innovations at the farm has also brought about an 80% increase in maize production as well as a 70% decrease in root diseases.

SRI and CA are well-suited to environments where soil degradation and climate change represent such grave challenges.[3],[4] Both encourage eco-friendly approaches which result in healthier soils and stronger root systems in plants that are then better able to withstand strong winds, flooding, lodging and drought. CA’s no-till principle results in less compacted soil that can more easily absorb water and SRI requires up to 50% less water[5] and reduced inputs of up to 90%[6]

CA was introduced to North Korea over 15 years ago by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the AFSC has been encouraging the adoption of SRI in the country since 2004.[7] “It saves equipment, it saves fertilizer, and it also saves them labour in lots of ways. So, it really is a successful innovation,” explains AFSC’s country manager for North Korea, Linda Lewis, who believes SRI now has the potential to spread nationwide.

Kim Ri Hwa grew up in the city but embraced the world of agriculture after responding to a call for people to help develop the countryside. Hard work rewarded her with the position of team leader on a cooperative farm and she qualified as a crop engineer before managing the Maejon Cooperative Farm.

Other recipients of the model farmer award this year were Ar Promtaisong from Rayong province of Thailand, Phonexay Thammavong from Laos, Fazla Yoosuf from the Maldives and Samson Mahit Haitong from Vanuatu.

 

[1] http://www.fao.org/asiapacific/events/award-citations-to-fao-asia-pacific-model-farmers/model-farmers2018/en/

[2] Ireson, Randall 2013: The State of North Korean Farming: New Information from the UN Crop Assessment Report

[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311418457_Conservation_Agriculture_and_Climate_Change_An_Overview

[4] Redfern, Suzanne K., Azzu , Nadine and Binamira , Jesie S. 2012 Rice in Southeast Asia: Facing Risks and Vulnerabilities to Respond to Climate Change http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/agphome/documents/climate/Rice_Southeast_Asia.pdf

[5]  Uphoff, N. 2007. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a System of Agricultural Innovation. Paper presented at the International Workshop: Farmer Participatory Research and Development 20 Years On. Future Agricultures Consortium, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, U.K. 12–14 December 2007 (available at: http://www.future-agricultures.org/farmerfirst/files/T1c_Uphoff.pdf).

[6] http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/aboutus/SRI_brochure2015.pdf

[7] https://www.afsc.org/video/improving-rice-production-north-korea-dprk

 

Towards climate resilient agriculture and food systems: A critical assessment and alternatives to climate-smart agriculture

Position Paper – read full original here

A detailed analysis of current farming policies in the context of “Climate Smart Agriculture” and the need for a radical rethink on attitudes to smallholder agriculture and relevant climate change adaptation practices.

Among the recommendations:

  • Any bilateral and multi-lateral climate finance flows should support bottom up, community-driven climate adaptation solutions.
  • Climate funds should not support technologies and approaches that increase the dependence of family and small-scale farmers on costly inputs.
  • The funds should prioritise support projects in line with principles of agroecology and food sovereignty.
  • Climate change mitigation initiatives in the agriculture sector should focus primarily on transforming and phasing-out the industrial agriculture system.
  • National mitigation and adaptation should respect a list of criteria to support transformational change towards agroecology, ensuring food security and sovereignty, restoring ecosystems and biodiversity, as well as defending human rights.

Rural women have resilience to cope with climate risks: study

See original post in vigyanprasar.gov.in

Author: Dinesh C Sharma

Climate change impacts are being felt in many parts of the country, as manifested in erratic rainfall, extreme weather events and changes in cropping patterns. Adapting to these changes at farm and household levels is critical. A new study says women, particularly in marginalised communities, possess necessary knowledge to cope with climate risks.

The study assessed the role of individual women in coping with climatic risks, particularly in managing agriculture, energy and nutrition in flood and drought-prone paddy growing region of eastern India. It was found that women’s participation and involvement is much higher in managing nursery as well as in other farm-related functions like transplanting and weeding. Women resort to exchange of knowledge and resources at their level to face exigencies of climatic variation, given the absence of timely governmental interventions.

For instance, women use creative ways to manage food and nutrition security in their households in lean months. Many of them plant cucurbits like bottle gourd, pumpkin, satputia (a small cultivar of ridge gourd) and okra in their homesteads, catering to vegetable needs of the family since these are costlier in summer. A few women ensured food security by processing fruits and vegetables and storing them for consumption later. They harvest weeds and segregate them for consumption by human and some for cattle, while non-edible ones are composted.

Women in high-risk zones, especially arid and semi-arid zones choose leaves and stem of many plants available throughout the year for food. “This becomes an important coping strategy to fight food shortage or famine. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine systems for their therapeutic effects,” the study says. Researchers have documented such weeds used in three villages in the study area. Their expertise and knowledge about non-agricultural food sources help in dealing with food and nutrition availability resulting due to fluctuating climate, the study says.

” This becomes an important coping strategy to fight food shortage or famine. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine systems for their therapeutic effects “

“In a situation when not many technological alternatives are available and climate risks have to be coped with, there are ways in which individual women find creative ways by managing resource exchange and pooling, overcoming class and cultural boundaries,” explained Dr Anil Gupta of Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, who conducted the study along with Anamika Dey and Gurdeep Singh of Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad.

The research is part of a long-term study on loss of agrobiodiversity underway in three villages (Isoulibhari, Shivnathpur, and Kharella) in Faizabad district in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The villages, located in floodplains of the Sarayu river, are flood prone and mostly follow rain-fed rice-wheat cropping system. The region is facing vagaries of climate change. Data of the past 25 years obtained from Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology showed high fluctuation in onset and withdrawal of monsoon, number of rainfall days, total rainfall received and average rainfall received per number of days.

“We found that knowledge networks of women contribute immensely to tide over the adverse effect of the risk episodes. But these informal channels of dissemination of the knowledge are often not recorded in formal scientific discourses,” Dr Gupta told India Science Wire.

Instead of ignoring the role of such informal networks, they can be used as channels for targeting climate adaptation policies and programmes, the study has suggested. If women groups become focal points of knowledge and resource dissemination in situations like crop failure due to flood or drought, there are fair chances that they will share these more openly. In addition, weather information needs to be provided according to local calendars, which are different from the Gregorian calendars, the study has suggested. The study has been published in journal World Development.

True victims of farm crisis

From DNA India. See original article
Author: Kota Neelima

The impact of drought on women farmers remains unregistered by the state, which considers them only in their non-farm roles in rural households and village communities. The new drought relief manual is no different as it merely provides an alibi for the state to abdicate its responsibility towards farm crises and utilises gender to reduce its intervention in agriculture by addressing only one half of the population.

Read more …